Bloodborne Pathogens Training

Bloodborne Pathogens Training  

Employees are required to receive annual Bloodborne Pathogens (BBP) training.  Employees can complete the online BBP training below and may obtain credit for the training by completing a quiz within the first 2 weeks of school and submitting it to the school nurse. 

Results of the quiz will be given to the employee by the School Nurse, at which time, the employee may discuss/clarify issues and/or ask questions requiring face-to-face BBP trainer/employee interaction. Employees are encouraged to contact the School Nurse, at any time during the school year for consultation regarding Bloodborne Pathogens. Bloodborne Pathogen training videos are also available from the school nurse, upon employee request. Various BBP training modules are made readily available to employees.

Module Objectives:

Provide a basic understanding of the following:

  • Bloodborne pathogens

  • Transmission modes

  • Protection methods

  • Reporting procedures

A copy of the BBP Exposure Control Plan is located in each school’s main office in the policy and procedure manual, and is available upon request from the school nurse.

Bloodborne Diseases - Overview

Bloodborne Pathogens are pathogenic microorganisms that are present in human blood and other potentially infectious materials (OPIM) and can cause disease in humans. These pathogens include, but are not limited to, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). "Hepatitis" means "inflammation of the liver".  Blood is the number one source of transmission of these pathogens.

Hepatitis B(HBV)

Hepatitis B is an inflammatory liver disease caused by the hepatitis B virus.Hepatitis B virus results in liver cell damage that can lead to scarring of the liver (cirrhosis) and increased risk of liver cancer in some people.It is 100 times more infectious than HIV, has no cure, and can be fatal. In a dried state, HBV may remain viable on surfaces for up to 1 week and maybe longer on unviable surfaces.  There is a vaccine available for protection against Hepatitis B.  

Transmission
HBV is transmitted primarily through "blood to blood" contact, by accidental needle sticks or other contaminated sharps injuries, sexual contact, mucous membrane contact, and through open cuts. Risk most often occurs in unprotected direct or indirect contact with infected blood. It is not transmitted by casual contact.

Symptoms
Many people with newly acquired hepatitis B have no symptoms at all or they may be very mild and flu-like – loss of appetite, possible stomach pain, nausea, fatigue, muscle or joint aches, mild fever, and possibly jaundice (yellowish tinge to the skin).

Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
 
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes inflammation of the liver.Many infected individuals show no signs or symptoms or the individual may experience flu-like symptoms
.

Transmission
Injection drug use is the primary risk for HCV infection (60% of new cases).The hepatitis C virus is found mainly in blood.HCV is not spread through kissing or casual contact.HCV may be transmitted by using razors, needles, toothbrushes, nail files, a barber's scissors, tattooing equipment, body piercing or acupuncture needles if these items are contaminated by blood of an infected person.HCV may be transmitted by accidental needle sticks – needles contaminated with HCV-positive blood.HCV is not able to reproduce outside the human body. There is medication to treat hepatitis C, but no cure.

Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that causes AIDS. AIDS stands for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Acquired means that the disease is not hereditary but develops after birth from contact with a disease causing agent (in this case, HIV). Immunodeficiency means that the disease is characterized by a weakening of the immune system. Syndrome refers to a group of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease. In the case of AIDS this can include the development of certain infections and/or cancers, as well as a decrease in the number of certain cells in a person’s immune system. AIDS weakens the body’s immune system so that it cannot fight other deadly diseases. AIDS is a fatal disease. There is no cure and no vaccine for AIDS.  However, there are medications to treat HIV.

Transmission
Transmission may occur through needles, sexual contact, open cuts, or mucous membranes of the eyes or inside of the nose.  HIV is not transmitted through casual contact or kissing unless there are open sores in the mouth.  It is also not transmitted through urine or feces unless it contains blood.

Symptoms
Many people who are infected with HIV do not have any symptoms at all for many years. Symptoms include rapid weight loss; dry cough; recurring fever or profuse night sweats; profound and unexplained fatigue; swollen lymph glands in the armpits, groin, or neck; diarrhea that lasts for more than a week; and white spots or unusual blemishes on the tongue, in the mouth, or in the throat.

Prevention of Bloodborne Diseases

Gloves should be worn during contact with blood or other body fluids that could possibly contain visible blood, such as urine, feces, or vomit.Cuts, sores, or breaks on exposed skin should be covered with bandages.Hands and other parts of the body should be washed immediately after contact with blood or other body fluids, and surfaces soiled with blood should be disinfected appropriately.Needles and other sharp instruments should be handled very carefully and according to recommendations for health-care settings. Never re-cap or bend needles. Dispose of needles in puncture-proof sharps containers. Clean up any blood spills with appropriate disinfectant.

Hepatitis A virus (HAV)

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is not a bloodborne pathogen.HAV is found in the stool (feces) of persons with hepatitis A.HAV is usually spread from person to person by putting something in the mouth (even though it may look clean) that has been contaminated with the stool of a person with hepatitis A. This is called "fecal-oral" transmission.There is no chronic (long-term) infection.Once you have had hepatitis A you cannot get it again.There is a vaccine available for protection – advised if traveling to certain regions.

 

Overall Modes of Transmission

It is important to know how bloodborne diseases are transmitted so that you may take protective measures when providing first aid or cleaning up blood. Bloodborne pathogens are spread through infected human blood and other potentially infectious materials (OPIM) such as semen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid, amniotic fluid, saliva in dental procedures, any body fluid that is visibly contaminated with blood. In situations where it is difficult or impossible to differentiate between body fluids – they are considered potentially infectious.  Also, remember to always practice good handwashing as it is a main line of defense in the prevention of spread of infection.

 

Employee Protection Methods/Personal Protective Equipment(PPE)

Never underestimate the dangers of bloodborne pathogens. Always practice "Universal Precautions" - treat all blood/body fluid as if it is infected.  Although, the risk of exposure to blood borne pathogens in the school setting is low, always remember to use PPE. 

Rules:

  • Always protect yourself first before becoming exposed to blood or body fluids and have a barrier between you and the potentially infectious materials.
  • Always have PPE readily available and wear in exposure situations.
  • Remove PPE that is torn, punctured, or of poor quality.
  • Replace torn or punctured PPE.
  • Put contaminated PPE in plastic-lined containers with the biohazard label.

Gloves:

  • Should be of water impervious materials such as latex or rubber
  • Cover any open cuts or sores on your hands with bandages before gloving.
  • Latex-free gloves are available for those with latex allergies.
  • Inspect gloves for tears or punctures before putting them on. If a glove is damaged, don’t use it. Wear 2 pairs if gloves are of flimsy, thin material.
  • Remove contaminated gloves carefully – never touch the outside of the gloves with any bare skin.
  • Dispose of contaminated gloves in such a way that no one else will come in contact with them.
  • Put contaminated gloves in a plastic-lined container with the biohazard label.
  • Wash hands after removing gloves at all times.

Goggles and face shields:

  • Should be worn with there is a risk or splashing or splattering of contaminated fluids.
  • Splashing could occur while cleaning up a blood or while providing medical assistance or first aid.
  • A face shield provides extra protection to the face and will protect the nose and mouth.

Aprons and shoe covers:

  • May be worn to protect your clothing and shoes
  • Keeps blood or other contaminated fluids from soaking through to your skin

Resuscitation devices – use for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR). Never perform mouth-to-mouth CPR.

If you’re in a situation where you don’t have the standard PPE, improvise! Use a plastic bag, towel, or other barrier to avoid direct contact.

 

Clean-up & Decontamination

An EPA-registered tuberculocidal disinfectant solution (e.g. Sanimaster IV, Zorbacide, Lysol) must be used to clean and decontaminate surfaces and work areas that come in contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials. Call a custodian to clean up and decontaminate such areas in the schools.

If you are cleaning up a spill of blood, carefully cover the spill with paper towels or cloths – then carefully pour the cleansing solution – and leave it for 10 minutes to kill any bloodborne pathogens. Use this method when cleaning contaminated equipment, first aid boxes, and other items. Remember to decontaminate any mops, sponges, pails, etc. that were used in the clean up process.

Although not recommended in the school setting, a solution of household bleach diluted between 1:10 and 1:100 with water is effective for decontamination. The standard recommendation is to use at least ¼ cup bleach per one gallon of water. Bleach is ineffective if not mixed properly, has a very short shelf life, must be used within 24 hours after mixing, lacks the ability to cleanse, is relatively toxic, is very corrosive to metals, and damages many materials.

Bleach is a hazardous chemical and is caustic!
To determine if a cleaning solution is EPA-registered: Read the label!

How to dispose of waste contaminated with blood/body fluids

Wear gloves.Place contaminated items in a leakproof bag.Remove gloves using proper method – never let bare skin touch contaminated gloves.Place securely fastened bag in a plastic lined trash container.Label the container or bag with biohazard label if not already labelled or a red bag.  Reb bags are located in one central location at every school.  Put contaminated sharp waste in red sharps container which is also available at every school. Although soiled clothing may harbor large numbers of pathogenic microorganisms, the risk of actual disease transmission is negligible. Rather than rigid rules and regulations, common-sense hygienic practices are recommended.

 Exposure

Wash the exposed area with non-abrasive, antibacterial soap and running water.Flush exposed eye or mucous membrane with running water for at least 15 minutes.Immediately report the exposure to your supervisor and school nurse. Complete an Exposure Report Form.Take the completed form to primary doctor or health department for a post-exposure medical evaluation – you may request blood testing and/or the Hepatitis B vaccination if you have not already received it.

 Hepatitis B Vaccinations

The 3-shot Hepatitis B vaccination series is offered at no cost for employees working in at-risk positions unless already vaccinated, antibody testing reveals immunity, or the vaccine is medically contraindicated. Contact the school nurse if interested."At-risk employees" means employees identified as being at risk for occupational exposure to blood and other potentially infectious materials. Employees listed in at-risk job categories are those who because of their usual duties might be exposed to blood or other potentially infectious fluids as an integral part of performing occupational tasks. Therefore, it is reasonable to anticipate that exposure may occur.The list may not be all-inclusive for at-risk exposure determination. Employees not included in the list who believe they are at risk for occupational exposure to blood and other potentially infectious materials may contact the school nurse.


Please see the school nurse for any questions regarding bloodborne pathogens or for any further information.